©2007 NewFoundations

Educational Theory of Booker T. Washington

Analyst: Maureen S. Stocker

WashingtonBT

RETURN
edited 8/18/11

Booker T. Washington was born a slave on a western Virginia farm about 1858 or 1859.[i] As a consequence of slavery, the month, date and year of his birth are unknown as is his ancestry.[ii] He was raised by his mother, Jane, alongside his older brother and younger sister; his father was an unidentified white man.[iii] On his childhood, Washington states, “From the time that I can remember anything, almost every day of my life has been occupied in some kind of labour.”[iv] Following the Emancipation Proclamation issued by Abraham Lincoln, Washington sought employment at the age of nine; “…he was employed at a salt works and in coal mines. He also was a houseboy for a prominent white family.”[v]

Washington’s education began shortly thereafter with his own personal determination and a copy of “Webster’s blue-black spelling book” that his mother gave him.[vi] Upon hearing of the opening of a school for the local African- American population and with approval from his mother, Washington began attending night classes after completing his day’s work at the salt furnace.[vii] Eventually, Washington, “…was permitted to go to the school in the day for a few months, with the understanding that (he) was to rise early in the morning and work in the furnace till nine o’clock, and return immediately after school closed in the afternoon for at least two more hours of work.”[viii]

After his time in the salt works and the coal mines, Washington traveled five hundred miles, working en route, to the Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute in Virginia in 1872, to continue his education.[ix] Washington became employed as a janitor to the school in order to pay for his tuition, room and board.[x] Like the other students at Hampton, Washington was taught the value of hard work for moral and economic strength.[xi] “He worked his way through school and taught for two years at Hampton after graduating.”[xii] In 1881 Washington accepted an invitation to become the headmaster at a normal school in Tuskegee, Alabama.[xiii]

When Washington first arrived in Tuskegee, Alabama, he described the school as a “little shanty.”[xiv] From that day forward until his death in 1915, “Washington worked tirelessly to persuade black and white people that the surest way for black people to advance was by learning skills and demonstrating a willingness to do manual labor.”[xv] Washington, virtually single-handedly, ran the Tuskegee Institute; hard work was pushed as the means for African- Americans to earn respect within society. Washington’s diligence led to the growth of the Tuskegee Institute; he garnered vast educational contributions from the wealthy, which he used to help the college expand.

Beyond his accomplishments in the field of education, Washington well regarded and formed connections within both the black and white communities. He became a prominent leader whose political connections reached all the way to the White House. Throughout his life, he remained a pragmatic conservative who sought to assist African- Americans in expanding their economic success in order to take responsibility for their future as a people.

Theory of Value

What Washington valued changed and evolved as he did. In Up From Slavery Washington wrote, “I determined, when quite a small child, that, if I accomplished nothing else in life, I would in some way get enough education to enable me to read common books and newspapers.”[xvi] From early on, Washington’s desire to read was what led him in his ambition to gain an education. Once he began his schooling, he learned of the other things in life he lacked, beyond literacy skills, such as material things. With freedom from slavery, African- Americans gained some (relative) freedom to move or do as they pleased, however, Washington noticed that, in general, “…while their wants had increased, their ability to supply their wants had not increased in the same degree.”[xvii] The desire to gain material goods came with freedom, however the ability to furnish this desire was still limited. The value of industrial education lay in granting these people the capability in fulfilling their goals.

Upon entering Hampton, Washington learned to value education from a wider perspective than simply what could be found in books or in the acquisition of material goods. Washington began to learn the value of hard work in addition to the basics of, for lack of a better word, “civilized” life. Washington wrote, “The matter of having meals at regular hours, of eating on a tablecloth, using a napkin, the use of the bathtub and of the tooth-brush, as well as the use of sheets upon the bed, were all new to me.”[xviii] Of all he learned, “I sometimes feel that almost the most valuable lesson I got at the Hampton Institute was in the use and value of the bath.”[xix] As silly as it may sound so far out of context, basic hygiene became a critical aspect of what was taught at Tuskegee. Washington included what General Armstrong (founder of the Hampton Institute) referred to as the “gospel of the toothbrush,” (or necessity of) into the curriculum.[xx]

Beyond basic elementary education and an understanding of hygiene, Washington valued the equivalent of a secondary education.[xxi] At this time in the South, secondary schools were where teachers were taught to become educators; transforming society began in the schools.[xxii] Secondary schools were intended to build upon what was taught on the elementary level; critical thinking was part of the secondary curriculum.[xxiii] While some critics of industrial education viewed it as being narrow or unsophisticated, Washington recognized the potential of using something simple as a means for pushing higher levels of cognition. “By viewing the things of life as the source for developing the habits of critical thinking rather than the classic literary courses, Washington was practicing a method of education that came to be recognized as foundational to progressive educational thought.”[xxiv]

The ultimate in value was in teaching his students to be able to take care of themselves. Washington wrote, “It was my aim to teach the students who came to Tuskegee to live a life and to make a living, to the end that they might return to their homes after graduation, and find profit and satisfaction in building up the communities from which they had come, and in developing the latent possibilities of the soil and the people…”[xxv] Washington saw the greatest value in having the knowledge that was taught to them, be passed down to yet another person. In sharing knowledge, Washington hoped that the poor would help themselves and help each other, bringing not only economic success but also fostering a greater sense of well being.

Theory of Knowledge

“I do not care to venture here an opinion about the nature of knowledge in general; but it will be pretty clear to any one who reflects upon the matter that the only kind of knowledge that has any sort of value for a race that is trying to get on its feet is knowledge that has some definite relation to the daily lives of the men and women who are seeking it.”[xxvi]

Despite how some of Washington’s critics may have viewed his advocacy for industrial education, he saw it as a necessary means, a stepping stone, to aiding his race. His insistence on the importance of an industrial education did not mean that he felt African- Americans were incapable of mastering scholarly subjects. Washington simply believed that there were far more useful or relevant subjects to teach than those his critics were encouraging. According to Washington, “One man may go into a community prepared to supply the people there an analysis of Greek sentences. The community may or may not at that time be prepared for, or feel the need of, Greek analysis, but it may feel the need of bricks and houses and wagons.”[xxvii] Industrial education was supplying the African- American population with the skills and knowledge Washington felt were needed.

“The principle that an educational program should be projected against the life of the people was basic to his educational thinking.”[xxviii] Washington’s education program was a reflection of the society in which he lived. During the Reconstruction, many African- Americans lacked the skills and knowledge to advance themselves in the economic realm. In the Black Belt of Alabama, where Tuskegee was located, a large population of African- Americans had fallen into a cycle of perpetual debt through sharecropping. Industrial education offered these people the opportunity to acquire a trade and learn the tools necessary to function in society. Developing an education program that wouldn’t assist the African- American population as a whole would have been fruitless; it had to be able to reach even the poorest of people.

“The older I grow, the more I am convinced that there is no education which one can get from books and costly apparatus that is equal to that which can be gotten from contact with great men and women.”[xxix] Washington believed that basic human interaction in conjunction with modeling appropriate behavior and teaching tangible skills would have a greater impact in pushing his race to succeed. While he was not opposed to book learning, he saw leading by example as the key to success. The benefits of being in the company of great men and women were substantial, absolute and indivisible. Regardless of what other tools a person has available to them, being in the company of greatness and learning through experience would have leave the greatest impression.

“The actual sight of a first-class house that a Negro has built is ten times more potent than pages of discussion about a house that he ought to build, or perhaps could build.”[xxx] Producing something of value

that would contribute to society was far more important than simply being able to analyze or theorize potential. Creating or actually doing was a better way to show knowledge and capabilities than conjecture. It was in producing and providing for yourself in addition to providing for others that Washington saw the path to success. One could not get ahead without being able to provide for themselves and for others. Leading by example was a critical aspect of industrial education and the acquisition of knowledge.

Theory of Human Nature

Washington, “…constantly and cannily cultivated the friendship and good will of whoever would serve his needs, suppressing what must have been his private feelings about their racial expressions and condescensions, dilating whatever he could to find praise in their utterances and deeds.”[xxxi] An opportunist, Washington recognized that part of human nature was to take advantage of prospects as they arise. Human nature was about doing what was necessary to succeed, be it in the personal or economic realm. Advancement of his people was the goal behind all of his actions. If an occasion presented itself to assist in his objective, Washington took advantage of it.

Part of human nature to Washington was undoubtedly about appealing to the consensus. Despite what his critics may have thought of him, Washington was doing what he felt was necessary in order to get what he needed. Throughout his lifetime, he ruffled feathers of potential allies because of his connections with various white conservatives. It is important to keep in mind, however, that his choices were calculated and well thought out; his options were weighed. Washington recognized that in order to reach his goals most effectively, some compromise would be necessary. In answering or appealing to the consensus (both white and black), Washington made both enemies and friends on either side of the racial spectrum.

“Unquestionably, Washington was one of a class of black leaders and spokesmen who in many respects and on many occasions accommodated themselves to the conditions imposed by the more numerous and powerful whites.”[xxxii] Washington’s philosophy was that, “…We must be sure that we shall make our greatest progress by keeping our feet on the earth, and by remembering that an inch of progress is worth a yard of complaint.”[xxxiii] Washington saw greater opportunity in appealing to the whims of the white men in power. He believed that protest would not gain as many results as compliance would. Protesting and arguing did not have nearly as much muscle as proving public opinion wrong.

Human nature was about doing and proving worth, not simply stating one’s worth. “Every persecuted individual and race should get much consolation out of the great human law, which is universal and eternal, that merit, no matter under what skin found, is in the long run, recognized and rewarded.”[xxxiv] Washington believed that it was in human nature to recognize and reward accomplishments. He believed that this was true, regardless of race. If the African- American population was to get ahead, they had to prove their significance, prove their abilities, not simply make declarations. Human nature acknowledges ambition, determination and hard work, not complaint and pouting. To Washington, human nature was about the survival of the fittest; it was his ambition to disprove the opinions of the consensus on the African- American.

Theory of Learning

Washington’s theory of education developed as a result of the path he took in acquiring an education. Washington believed, “…what our people most needed was to get a foundation in education, industry, and property…”[xxxv] In attempting to understand Washington’s perspective, we must remember from where and whence he came. The ideals that Washington pushed were ones that he needed to be instructed in upon enrolling at Hampton, such as the importance of hygiene. Washington was less concerned with book learning than he was with learning how to function and succeed in mainstream society. Washington believed, “…in the present condition of the negro race in this country there is a need of something more.”[xxxvi]

One of Washington’s biggest critics, W.E.B. Du Bois, argued that his “…educational programme was unnecessarily narrow.”[xxxvii] It is important to remember, however, that if Washington’s program was narrow, it was because his prospects had once been. Du Bois further argues that, “Mr. Washington’s programme practically accepts the alleged inferiority of the Negro races.”[xxxviii] What Du Bois fails to take into account is that Washington’s program dealt with a poorer class of African- American people who required instruction in the most basic of subjects. This was not an acceptance of inferiority. It was basic instruction out of necessity. Because he had not lived the same experience as Washington, Du Bois may have been blinded to the need for industrial education.

Scholars were not the only critics of industrial education. “Washington found it necessary to break down the students’ prejudices against this type of education.”[xxxix] The students at Tuskegee initially saw education as the means for gaining freedom from physical labor. In keeping with what he’d learned at Hampton, Washington continued to stress to his students, “…the dignity of labor, the essential affinity of mental and physical activity, and how happiness comes from the common things in life.”[xl] According to Harlan, Washington, “…believed both industrial school graduates and college graduates had obligations to the unskilled masses.”[xli] What was taught at Tuskegee was intended to be passed on to others who lacked knowledge of the basics.

“My plan was not to teach them to work in the old way but to show them how to make the forces of nature- air, water, steam, electricity, horse-power- assist them in their labour.”[xlii] In teaching his students to function and succeed in society, Washington sought to show them how to be self-reliant. This self-reliance was more than simply being able to get by in life. It created understanding. His students learned not only how to do, but how to problem solve. They learned the tools necessary for critical thinking. The industrial education method was not about teaching simple methodology to build a labor force, as his critics have complained. Industrial education was training in skills that led to finding a sense of wisdom and understanding in the ways of the world.

Theory of Transmission

Although Washington is pretty much ignored in the literature of progressive education,[xliii] Generals speculates that he “…was practicing a method of education that came to be recognized as foundational to progressive educational thought.”[xliv] Washington’s curriculum was built on the premise that learning should stem from personal experiences.[xlv] Louis Harlan suggests that Washington was following in the footsteps of John Dewey by using the project method.[xlvi] Washington’s work at Tuskegee, however, pre-dates the work of Dewey by 30 years.[xlvii] As with the methodology used by Dewey, “…students at Tuskegee were taught by the so-called activity method. They were provided opportunity ‘to study actual things instead of books alone.’”[xlviii]

“For the individuals in the communities to acquire the fundamental skills necessary to begin the process of large-scale socialization, Washington needed to bind the educational activities to those experiences familiar to the learner.”[xlix] The projects given to the students of Tuskegee were all real life projects.[l] For example, when the school was in need of physical expansion, it was the students who completed the work necessary. Washington notes that during the first 19 years of Tuskegee, “In this time forty buildings, counting small and large, have been built, and all except four are almost wholly the product of student labour.”[li] Washington felt there was more value in understanding methodology by physically doing, rather than simply reading; learning is a function of application.

Transmission of knowledge was a result of solving problems. The “…students at Tuskegee were taught by the so-called activity method. They were provided opportunity ‘to study actual things instead of books alone.’”[lii] For example, when faced with the need for bricks to work on the expansion of the school, Washington realized that there were no brickyards in the area.[liii] Realizing that there was both an educational and economic need within the community, Washington added brick masonry to the curriculum.[liv] Instead of learning how to make bricks from reading books, the students sought to acquire this knowledge through trial and error. Learning this trade proved to be difficult, but once they mastered the process, the students of Tuskegee had a skill that could be contributed to any community in which they lived.[lv]

“The social harmony that derives during the exchange of individual experiences extends from the mutual need not merely for survival but for growth of the individual and the community.”[lvi] When an individual learns, he or she will pass the information on to someone else. The knowledge acquired will be transmitted to the community as a whole. When one individual benefits, the benefits are indivisible and will be shared. “This concept of organic evolution can be seen in Washington’s speeches in which he stressed the importance of Blacks empowering themselves by grappling intelligently with the very problems that beset them in their environments.”[lvii] Washington saw that there was an extension of the self, or individual learning, that would inevitably reach others. Individual growth and learning meant that there would be growth within the community.

Washington’s understanding of the transmission of knowledge was that it was organic; it was free- flowing and had little limitations. Furthermore, “He believed the student needed to have experience with the thing that the word or symbol represented before he could understand the meaning of the word or symbol.”[lviii] The very nature of understanding was in creating meaning for the learner. Not surprisingly, “…the teaching of English at Tuskegee involved correlating the lessons of the English classes with the experiences of the trade shops and the farms.”[lix] Students learned through “doing,” rather than simply “seeing.” The students were taught to problem solve, experiment and utilize inquiry. The focus of education at Tuskegee was in assisting the learner in forming connections and finding coherence, rather than simply regurgitating information.[lx]

Theory of Society

Washington’s theory of society was, “first, that the two races had to live together; second, that they could coexist symbiotically.”[lxi] Washington saw progress as being inevitable.[lxii] Regardless of the conditions that existed, progress was part of nature and society would continue to shape itself and evolve.[lxiii] Furthermore, “He contended that both races were engaged in a struggle to adjust themselves to the new conditions produced by the war and that anything done for Negroes would be of no real value to them if it did not benefit the whites who surrounded them.”[lxiv] If whites were not benefited, the African- Americans’ gains would hold no value to either race. It was only through substantiating their worth that African- Americans would become an integral part of society.

Washington wanted the African- American population to, “…abandon their interest in starting at the top of Southern society, that they put forth their best efforts to exploit the opportunities they had always encountered at the bottom where they lived.”[lxv] He believed that their desire to start at the top was unreasonable. Not only did they lack the tools necessary to justify this aspiration, but in pushing for it resentment among the white population would grow. If blacks and whites were to function as one, working symbiotically, they had to assist each other. Creating a greater reason for fighting and disagreement would not help society as a whole or assist the African- Americans in attaining the goal of being treated as equals.

Bullock suggests, “He seemed to have looked forward to a completely biracial society of benevolent coexistence with whites.”[lxvi] All indications point to this idea. Washington believed that society could be made up of both races, functioning and eventually, completely interacting, with one another. Society would advance, just as progress does. The racial problem would dissipate and African- Americans would be rewarded for their efforts and accomplishments. Whites would learn to appreciate the contributions that African- Americans make to society. All of this would happen through the hard work and determination of a people seeking to persevere despite all odds. Washington’s theory of society was that while change was inevitable, it would not happen overnight.

Booker T. Washington was born a slave on a western Virginia farm in 1858 or 1859.[i] As a consequence of slavery, the month, date and year of his birth are unknown as is his ancestry.[ii] He was raised by his mother, Jane, alongside his older brother and younger sister; his father was an unidentified white man.[iii] On his childhood, Washington states, “From the time that I can remember anything, almost every day of my life has been occupied in some kind of labour.”[iv] Following the Emancipation Proclamation issued by Abraham Lincoln, Washington sought employment at the age of nine; “…he was employed at a salt works and in coal mines. He also was a houseboy for a prominent white family.”[v]

Washington’s education began shortly thereafter with his own personal determination and a copy of “Webster’s blue-black spelling book” that his mother gave him.[vi] Upon hearing of the opening of a school for the local African- American population and with approval from his mother, Washington began attending night classes after completing his day’s work at the salt furnace.[vii] Eventually, Washington, “…was permitted to go to the school in the day for a few months, with the understanding that (he) was to rise early in the morning and work in the furnace till nine o’clock, and return immediately after school closed in the afternoon for at least two more hours of work.”[viii]

After his time in the salt works and the coal mines, Washington traveled five hundred miles, working en route, to the Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute in Virginia in 1872, to continue his education.[ix] Washington became employed as a janitor to the school in order to pay for his tuition, room and board.[x] Like the other students at Hampton, Washington was taught the value of hard work for moral and economic strength.[xi] “He worked his way through school and taught for two years at Hampton after graduating.”[xii] In 1881 Washington accepted an invitation to become the headmaster at a normal school in Tuskegee, Alabama.[xiii]

When Washington first arrived in Tuskegee, Alabama, he described the school as a “little shanty.”[xiv] From that day forward until his death in 1915, “Washington worked tirelessly to persuade black and white people that the surest way for black people to advance was by learning skills and demonstrating a willingness to do manual labor.”[xv] Washington, virtually single-handedly, ran the Tuskegee Institute; hard work was pushed as the means for African- Americans to earn respect within society. Washington’s diligence led to the growth of the Tuskegee Institute; he garnered vast educational contributions from the wealthy, which he used to help the college expand.

Beyond his accomplishments in the field of education, Washington well regarded and formed connections within both the black and white communities. He became a prominent leader whose political connections reached all the way to the White House. Throughout his life, he remained a pragmatic conservative who sought to assist African- Americans in expanding their economic success in order to take responsibility for their future as a people.

Theory of Opportunity

Washington admits to envying whites as a child; “…I used to try to picture in my imagination the feelings and ambitions of a white boy with absolutely no limit placed upon his aspirations and activities.”[lxvii] Washington’s childhood caused a shift in focus to finding success, despite race. He was aware of the color line, of what it meant to be an African- American, but he chose to channel his energies differently. Instead of being angry or vengeful (which he would have been entitled), Washington looked toward the future with a sense of optimism. He believed that whatever successes were to be attained would be the result of hard work and diligence, not protest or a sense of entitlement.

Measuring success by what is overcome in the process, Washington wrote, “…I almost reach the conclusion that often the Negro boy’s birth and connection with an unpopular race is an advantage, so far as life is concerned.”[lxviii] In this way, the African- American child has greater opportunity to find success as a result of needing to triumph over vast obstacles. Not surprisingly, Washington’s tone throughout his autobiography, Up From Slavery, remained positive despite the adversity with which he was met. Not a shred of self-pity or anger was evident in his words. This is perhaps because Washington saw misfortune

as a catalyst for increasing his opportunities in life.

According to Harlan, “…his ultimate goal was not a separate sphere for the black man but the opportunity and means to do all that the whites considered part of a full life.”[lxix] Washington saw the means for attaining these goals through industrial education. Education, according to Washington, consisted of teaching not just the brain, but also the heart and the hands.[lxx] “Mere hand training, without thorough moral, religious, and mental education counts for very little.”[lxxi] In teaching the whole person the opportunity to grow as an individual, increases. If African- Americans strove for greatness, their acceptability within society as a whole would likely be welcomed. In short, Washington believed that they had to earn respect, rather than being granted it simply for being free men.

“Wherever the race is given an opportunity for education, it takes advantage of that opportunity, and the change can be seen in the improved material, educational, moral and religious condition of the masses.”[lxxii] Freedom was seen as the opportunity for education, however, like all other things, education had to be earned. In order to achieve the goal of becoming educated, hard work was necessary. In the words of Washington, “Nothing ever comes to one, that is worth having, except as a result of hard work.”[lxxiii] While freedom was handed to African- Americans, the rights they desired needed to be achieved as a result of their own efforts.

In examining Washington’s perspective on what the opportunity for education is or who should have the opportunity, trainable versus educable comes into play. Critics of Washington feared that industrial education advocated the continuance of menial black labor by training them to remain subordinate members of society.[lxxiv] Critics saw industrial education as a means to guarantee that they would be kept from becoming educated. Washington countered this argument by stating, “It is at the bottom of life we must begin, not the top.” He did not see training African- Americans in labor, morality or even hygiene as stunting their educational prospects. Washington saw their training as a stepping stone to greater things.

Theory of Consensus

Washington’s theory of consensus can best be summarized through examining his famous address at the Cotton States and International Exposition in Atlanta in 1895. Of this address, Washington wrote, “…the thing that was uppermost in my mind was the desire to say something that would cement the friendship of the races and bring about a hearty cooperation between them.”[lxxv] His speech was intended to appeal to the consensus and was so successful in doing so that it became referred to as the Atlanta Compromise. Washington’s accomplishment was in uniting reality and humanitarian concern in a plausible and optimistic way for both whites and blacks.[lxxvi]

To the African- American population Washington said, “No race can prosper till it learns that there is as much dignity in tilling a field as in writing a poem. It is at the bottom of life we must begin, and not at the top. Nor should we permit our grievances to overshadow our opportunities.”[lxxvii] In stating what he did, Washington appealed to the consensus of the white population. His argument was that protest was not the means to find success; success lies in opportunities presented and through hard work. This was well received by whites. His statement also appealed to the consensus of the black population by appealing to their sense of pride. Washington believed there was dignity in hard work; a sense of accomplishment would be found in climbing to the top of society from meager beginnings at the bottom.

Washington pushed for economic opportunity to be given to the African- Americans before it be given to foreigners. To the white population, Washington stated, “While doing this, you can be sure in the future, as in the past, that you and your families will be surrounded by the most patient, faithful, law-abiding, and unresentful people that the world has seen.”[lxxviii] This statement appealed to the whites by insinuating that African- Americans would not cause problems, despite the fact that they had every right to be outraged by their treatment. The African- American population was in consensus with the whites for reasons that were purely economic. They, like Washington, wanted to be given consideration above immigrants.

“In all things that are purely social we can be as separate as the fingers, yet one as the hand in all things essential to mutual progress.”[lxxix] Critics of Washington have argued that this statement was in compliance with the white idea of segregation. In addition, this statement is part of the reason that Washington has been pegged as a man eager to accommodate the needs of whites. Arguably, however, this statement is simply an appeal to the consensus. The point of the Atlanta Exposition speech was to appeal to the whites the importance and benefits of conducting business with the African- American population; he advocated hiring black workers, instead of foreigners. In short, Washington was advocating the economic prosperity of his people, while appealing to the consensus of both races.

“If anywhere there are efforts tending to curtail the fullest growth of the Negro, let these efforts be turned into stimulating, encouraging, and making him the most useful and intelligent citizen. Efforts or means so invested will pay a thousand percent interest.”[lxxx] In stating this, Washington is asking the whites to help African- Americans better themselves. This statement appeals to their sense of pride

while offering a high return on their investment through the promise of a better society and citizenship. It also appeals to the consensus of the African- American population by offering hope that there would be further assistance from the whites. It appeals to their sense of pride because it pushes for a change in treatment of the blacks; it offers optimism where there was little.

“The wisest among my race understand that the agitation of questions of social equality is the extremest folly, and that progress in the enjoyment of all the privileges that will come to us must be the result of severe and constant struggle rather than artificial forcing.”[lxxxi] This statement appeals to the consensus of the white population by presenting an understanding of segregation and the need for struggle. It also made the idea of social equality at that particular juncture seem laughable. The statement appeals to the consensus of the African- American population because it blocks further inquiry. Washington states that the wisest of his race will agree with his perspective; few would want to argue for fear of being deemed unwise.

According to Harlan, Washington “…was an assimilationist above all else.”[lxxxii] Harlan suggests that Washington would do whatever it took to keep the white population content. Hine offers a different perspective: “Many people found him unassertive, dignified, and patient. Yet he was ambitious, aggressive, and opportunistic as well as shrewd calculating, and devious.”[lxxxiii] Other critics of Washington would happily paint an image of him as Uncle Tom. Regardless of what perspective one takes, Washington, above all, managed to appeal to the consensus of both races. He was a capable leader for the African- American population and somehow still managed to leave an imprint on American history as a whole.[lxxxiv]



Footnotes

[i] Booker T. Washington, Up From Slavery, (New York: Lancer Books, 1968), p. 9- 10.

[ii] Ibid., p. 9.

[iii] Darlene Clark Hine, William C. Hine & Stanley Harrold, The African- American Odyssey, Combined Volume, Second Edition, (Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall, 2005), p. 338.

[iv] Booker T. Washington, Up From Slavery, (New York: Lancer Books, 1968), p. 13.

[v] Darlene Clark Hine, William C. Hine & Stanley Harrold, The African- American Odyssey, Combined Volume, Second Edition, (Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall, 2005), p. 338.

[vi] Booker T. Washington, Up From Slavery, (New York: Lancer Books, 1968), p. 34.

[vii] Ibid., p. 38.

[viii] Ibid., p. 38.

[ix] Ibid., p. 52.

[x] Ibid., p. 59.

[xi] New Perspectives on Black Educational History, edited by Vincent P. Franklin and James D. Anderson, (Boston:

G.K. Hall & Co., 1978), p. 61.

[xii] Darlene Clark Hine, William C. Hine & Stanley Harrold, The African- American Odyssey, Combined Volume, Second Edition, (Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall, 2005), p. 339.

[xiii] Booker T. Washington, Up From Slavery, (New York: Lancer Books, 1968), p. 110.

[xiv] Ibid., p. 122.

[xv] Darlene Clark Hine, William C. Hine & Stanley Harrold, The African- American Odyssey, Combined Volume, Second Edition, (Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall, 2005), p. 339.

[xvi] Booker T. Washington, Up From Slavery, (New York: Lancer Books, 1968), p. 34.

[xvii] Ibid., p. 94.

[xviii] Ibid., p. 63.

[xix] Ibid., p. 63.

[xx] Booker T. Washington, edited by E.L. Thornbrough, (Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1969), p. 39.

[xxi] Donald Generals, “Booker T. Washington and Progressive Education: An Experimentalist Approach to Curriculum Development and Reform,” The Journal of Negro Education, Vol. 69, No. 3, (2000), p. 224.

[xxii] Ibid., p. 224.

[xxiii] Ibid., p. 224.

[xxiv] Ibid., p. 224.

[xxv] Booker T. Washington, edited by E.L. Thornbrough, (Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1969), p. 39.

[xxvi] Ibid., p. 39.

[xxvii] Booker T. Washington, Up From Slavery, (New York: Lancer Books, 1968), p. 156- 157.

[xxviii] Negro Education in America: Its Adequacy, Problems, and Needs, edited by Virgil A. Clift, Archibald W. Anderson & H. Gordon Hullfish, (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1962), p.63.

[xxix] Booker T. Washington, Up From Slavery, (New York: Lancer Books, 1968), p. 60.

[xxx] Ibid., p. 156.

[xxxi] Louis R. Harlan, Booker T. Washington: The Wizard of Tuskegee, 1901-1915, (New York: Oxford University

Press, 1983), p. 238- 239.

[xxxii] Ibid., p. 244.

[xxxiii] The American Legacy of Learning: Readings in the History of Education, edited by John Hardin Best & Robert

T. Sidwell, (Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Company, 1967), p. 283.

[xxxiv] Booker T. Washington, Up From Slavery, (New York: Lancer Books, 1968), p. 46- 47.

[xxxv] Ibid., p. 97.

[xxxvi] Booker T. Washington, edited by E.L. Thornbrough, (Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1969), p. 41.

[xxxvii] W.E.B. Du Bois, The Souls of Black Folk, (New York: Dover Publications, 1994), p. 27.

[xxxviii] Ibid., p. 30..

[xxxix] Henry Allen Bullock, A History of Negro Education in the South, From 1619 to the Present, (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1967), p.82.

[xl] Ibid., p.83.

[xli] Louis R. Harlan, Booker T. Washington: The Wizard of Tuskegee, 1901-1915, (New York: Oxford University

Press, 1983), p. 175.

[xlii] Booker T. Washington, Up From Slavery, (New York: Lancer Books, 1968), p. 150.

[xliii] Donald Generals, “Booker T. Washington and Progressive Education: An Experimentalist Approach to Curriculum Development and Reform,” The Journal of Negro Education, Vol. 69, No. 3, (2000), p. 215.

[xliv] Ibid., p. 222.

[xlv] Ibid., p. 216.

[xlvi] Louis R. Harlan, Booker T. Washington: The Wizard of Tuskegee, 1901-1915, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1983), p. 151.

[xlvii] Donald Generals, “Booker T. Washington and Progressive Education: An Experimentalist Approach to Curriculum Development and Reform,” The Journal of Negro Education, Vol. 69, No. 3, (2000), p. 216.

[xlviii] Negro Education in America: Its Adequacy, Problems, and Needs, edited by Virgil A. Clift, Archibald W. Anderson & H. Gordon Hullfish, (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1962), p.64.

[xlix] Donald Generals, “Booker T. Washington and Progressive Education: An Experimentalist Approach to Curriculum Development and Reform,” The Journal of Negro Education, Vol. 69, No. 3, (2000), p. 222.

[l] Ibid., p. 216.

[li] Booker T. Washington, Up From Slavery, (New York: Lancer Books, 1968), p. 151.

[lii] Negro Education in America: Its Adequacy, Problems, and Needs, edited by Virgil A. Clift, Archibald W. Anderson & H. Gordon Hullfish, (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1962), p.64.

[liii] Booker T. Washington, Up From Slavery, (New York: Lancer Books, 1968), p. 152.

[liv] Ibid.

[lv] Ibid., p. 155.

[lvi] Donald Generals, “Booker T. Washington and Progressive Education: An Experimentalist Approach to Curriculum Development and Reform,” The Journal of Negro Education, Vol. 69, No. 3, (2000), p. 226.

[lvii] Ibid.

[lviii] Ibid., p. 224.

[lix] Ibid., p. 225.

[lx] Ibid.

[lxi] Henry Allen Bullock, A History of Negro Education in the South, From 1619 to the Present, (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1967), p.80.

[lxii] Ibid..

[lxiii] Ibid.

[lxiv] Ibid.

[lxv] Ibid., p.81.

[lxvi] Ibid., p.85.

[lxvii] Booker T. Washington, Up From Slavery, (New York: Lancer Books, 1968), p. 45.

[lxviii] Ibid., p. 46.

[lxix] Louis R. Harlan, Booker T. Washington: The Wizard of Tuskegee, 1901-1915, (New York: Oxford University

Press, 1983, p. 204).

[lxx] Negro Education in America: Its Adequacy, Problems, and Needs, edited by Virgil A. Clift, Archibald W. Anderson & H. Gordon Hullfish, (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1962), p.64.

[lxxi] Ibid.

[lxxii] The American Legacy of Learning: Readings in the History of Education, edited by John Hardin Best & Robert T. Sidwell, (Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Company, 1967), p. 282.

[lxxiii] Booker T. Washington, Up From Slavery, (New York: Lancer Books, 1968), p. 189.

[lxxiv] Darlene Clark Hine, William C. Hine & Stanley Harrold, The African- American Odyssey, Combined Volume, Second Edition, (Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall, 2005), p. 340.

[lxxv] Booker T. Washington, Up From Slavery, (New York: Lancer Books, 1968), p. 217- 218.

[lxxvi] Michael Rudolph West, The Education of Booker T. Washington: American Democracy and the Idea of Race Relations, (New York: Columbia University Press, 2006), p. 11.

[lxxvii] Booker T. Washington, Up From Slavery, (New York: Lancer Books, 1968), p. 220.

[lxxviii] Ibid., p. 221.

[lxxix] Ibid., p. 221.

[lxxx] Ibid., p. 222.

[lxxxi] Ibid., p. 223.

[lxxxii] Louis R. Harlan, Booker T. Washington: The Wizard of Tuskegee, 1901-1915, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1983), p. 204.

[lxxxiii] Darlene Clark Hine, William C. Hine & Stanley Harrold, The African- American Odyssey, Combined Volume, Second Edition, (Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall, 2005), p. 367.

[lxxxiv] Michael Rudolph West, The Education of Booker T. Washington: American Democracy and the Idea of Race Relations, (New York: Columbia University Press, 2006), p. 12.

Bibliography

Best, John Hardin & Robert T. Sidwel, eds. The American Legacy of Learning; Readings in the History of Education. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Company, 1966.

Bullock, Henry Allen. A History of Negro Education in the South, From 1619 to Present. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1967.

Clift, Virgil A., Archibald W. Anderson, & H. Gordon Hullfish, eds. Negro Education in America: Its Adequacy, Problems, and Needs New York: Harper & Brothers Publishers, 1962.

Du Bois, W.E.B. The Souls of Black Folk. New York: Dover Publications, 1994.

Franklin, Vincent P. and James D. Anderson. New Perspectives on Black Educational History. Boston: G.K. Hall, 1978.

Generals, Donald. “Booker T. Washington and Progressive Education: An Experimentalist Approach to Curriculum Development and Reform.” The Journal of Negro Education, Vol. 69, No. 3 (2000): 215-234.

Harlan, Louis R. Booker T. Washington in Perspective. Edited by Raymond W. Smock. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1988.

Harlan, Louis R. Booker T. Washington, The Wizard of Tuskegee, 1901- 1915. New York: Oxford University Press, 1983.

Hine, Darlene Clark, William C. Hine, & Stanley Harrold. The African- American Odyssey, Combined Volume, Second Edition. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall, 2005.

Thornbrough, E.L., ed. Booker T. Washington. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice- Hall, Inc., 1969.

Washington, Booker T. Up From Slavery. New York: Lancer Books, 1968.

West, Michael Rudolph. The Education of Booker T. Washington: American Democracy and the Idea of Race Relations. New York: Columbia University, 2006.

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