©2010 NewFoundations

DOCTORAL COMPREHENSIVE EXAMINATIONS IN EDUCATION

Model Questions
similar to questions posed over the period 1999 to 2009
at an Ed.D. granting university

Edward G. Rozycki, Ed. D.

 

New self-instructional preparation materials in ethics:
Doing Ethics: concerns & procedures.

RETURN
edited 12/3/10


Look for Links to Trial Answers and Critiques

Links to Different Tracks and Questions

Higher Education
Foundations
Professional
Research Methods
Human Sexuality
Foundations
Professional
Research Methods
Reading
Foundations
Professional
Research Methods
School Administration
Foundations
Professional
Research Methods

 



SCHOOL ADMINISTRATION

FOUNDATIONS

DIRECTION: Select one question from the questions provided below and respond to it. Give yourself at most 90 minutes to write this response.


  1. When is a difference in treatment an injustice? Consider the following model: Smith applies treatment X to members of group A; he does not apply treatment X to members of group B. We could "flesh out" the bare bones of this model in three very different ways:

a. Dr. Smith gives medicine X to members of group A, who suffer from the ailment that medicine X was developed for. Group B members do not have that ailment, so Smith does not give them the medicine.

b. Director Smith refuses to give teaching licenses to members of group A, convicted felons who have served their time, despite their having completed all educational requirements. Members of group B, who are non-felons with the proper educational credentials are granted their licenses.

c. President Smith blocks the admission of members of group A into his social club, because he and his friends despise the ethnic heritage of group A's members. Members of group B, which is anyone belonging to ethnic groups different from those of group A, he will accept.

In every case treatment was based on group membership. But clearly, other considerations determine whether that discriminatory act was fair, neutral, or unfair. Using the cases above as test cases, spell out the considerations which tend to establish such treatment as an injustice

LINK TO SOLUTION METHOD FOR THIS PROBLEM


2. Try to develop for the two examples of ideologies given belowboth critical questions and related criteria questions. Critical questions raise issues that those committed to the ideology would most likely rather not deal with. Such critical inquiry might indirectly bring the ideology into question. Criteria questions recast the critical questions into questions about criteria used to make a decision. Below, an example of an ideology is given first, followed by a set of critical questions derived from it. Then criteria questions are formed from the critical questions. For example,

IDEOLOGY ON DEVELOPING A CONCEPTION OF AUTHORITY: The social development of elementary school students proceeds as the child becomes aware of the various authority structures that operate throughout the school, the community, the region, and the nation.

Related critical questions: Can the child's social development proceed by some other manner than by awareness of authority? What counts as becoming aware of or recognizing authority? Does the child's social development necessarily parallel that of her awareness of community, region and nation in that order?


After developing the critical questions, pick out the important concepts. In this case, let's just look at "social development," "authority," and "awareness." To make a related criteria question, ask of each of these concepts, what are its criteria?
 

Related criteria questions: What are the criteria for social development? What are the criteria that define authority? On what basis do we decide (that is, what are the criteria) that a conflict is occurring? How do we distinguish the child's awareness of region from her awareness of nation?


For the next two examples of ideologies, develop critical and related criteria questions:
 

Example A. IDEOLOGY ON THE LEARNER AS A SELF-ACTUALIZED KNOWER:7

The only learning which signif cantly influences behavior is personal, self-discovered, self-appropriated learning. This 1and of learning cannot be communicated through conventional forms of teaching where the school approaches students with pre-set curricula and methods.... Although the school experiences are social, each student follows his own path in the acquisition of knowledge.

Related Critical Questions:

Related Criteria Questions:
 

Example B. IDEOLOGY ON AFFECTIVE EDUCATION FOR RELIGIOUS COMMUNITY:8

The affectivity of our school leads to acceptance of Christ as personal savior. Our school is part of a community of faith. lt isapiritual environment.... It is an environment which arouses a student to faith.
 

Related Critical Questions:
 

Related Criteria Questions:


3. One "problem" that seems to persist year-in and year-out in our public schools, according to the Gallup polls, seems to be the problem of discipline. Why is this? Analyze the "problem of discipline" using such concepts as slogan, consensus, situation, constituency, perception, concern, change proposal, costs and benefits.
 


 

4. Discuss the interplay in American public education of the factors proposed as perennial educational goals by Randall Collins:

a. Status pursuits
b. Vocational concerns
c. Social control concerns

Give examples of each type and of mixed types to illustrate your points.


 

5. It is often asserted that two epistemological theories, Rationalism and Empiricism, imply radically divergent educational practices. For example, empiricists often argue that the most appropriate education emphasizes direct experience, "learning by doing", while thinkers of a rationalist bent, from Plato to Chomsky, argue that education if fundamentally a matter of "pulling out" from the student what he/she already implicitly knows, bringing to full consciousness what is innate.

A. Explain the major themes in Rationalism and Empiricism as these theories have developed in Western thought.Discuss what you believe to be the most significant implications of these respective theories for education.

B. Identify some organizational practices and structures that in most schools constrain educators from a full-blown commitment to any "purely philosophically" derived Empiricist or Rationalist practice.

Link to Proposed Answer and Critical Comments

Additional Proposed Answer and Comments


 

6. Is it possible to give appropriate guidance to students concerning values issues without merely indoctrinating them? What should the place of values education be in the curriculum? Should the focus of values education be on rules of correct behavior (as for example Kant thought), or on character development (as for example Aristotle held)? Consider specifically the difficulties that American multiculturalism poses for values education. Do not fail to consider how the success of such a program might be evaluated: might difficulties in evaluation affect the ways in which such a program might be implemented? (See Trial Answer)


 

7. Consider a list of five standard secondary curricular items. Rank them in direct probability of usage in five occupations. Rank these occupations roughly in terms of their frequency in the economy. What justification can be made for including low ranking or low frequency-related items in the curriculum? On the other hand, given the multiply controlled economy of the United States, what justification can be given for including possibly ephemeral items in the curriculum?

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PROFESSIONAL KNOWLEDGE

SCHOOL ADMINISTRATION

ADMINISTRATION/LEADERSHIP

DIRECTION: Select one question from the questions provided and respond to it. Also, please specify the number of the question that you are answering. You have 90 minutes to write this response.
 

1. Argue pro or con that there is a relationship between the style of leadership and the kind of organizational structure that kind of leadership can be successful in. Use a recognized set of distinctions among leadership styles and organizational structures to support your argument.


 

2. Educational administrators need to be effective leaders, communicators, and decision makers. Based on your knowledge of traditional and contemporary leadership theory and practice, define your philosophy of leadership and discuss how you would go about affecting a positive change to a current problem facing elementary and/or secondary educators. Your response should include (1) a statement of beliefs about educational leadership, (2) a complete assessment of the problem and why you consider it important and (3) a well organized explanation on how you as a leader would address the problem in the context of your organizational interests. You are expected to support all aspects of your response with appropriate reference to the related literature.


 

3. Feinberg and Soltis identify three perspectives on schooling and society: functionalism, conflict theory and interpretivism. What is the nature of each of these perspectives, what is their origin, and what values and ideologies underlie each of these perspectives? Which perspective do you embrace as the substructure of your behavior as a school administrator?


 

4. "You can understand the present curriculum of public high schools by understanding what the job market demands of graduates." Argue pro or con this statement noting that such subjects as Latin, sex education, American history, trigonometry and others are found in that curriculum.

 

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RESEARCH METHODS

SCHOOL ADMINISTRATION

Sample item for Research Methods – Comprehensives

Directions:

In this section, you will be given a research problem pertaining to your degree area (i.e., School Administration, Higher Education Leadership or Reading, respectively).

You are to prepare a mini-proposal (500-750 words in length).

- The proposal should establish at least one plausible research question that addresses the problem.

- Then describe a research investigation that would answer the question and be publishable as an article or a dissertation.

- Keep in mind that you only have 90 minutes to complete this assignment. Therefore you want to achieve a balance between main ideas and supporting details.

- You will need to address all the items in the outline that follows, so it will make your task easier if you simply follow the outline.

- An outline format for your response will be acceptable assuming that you have included explanatory information.

- Professors reading your examination need enough detail to comprehend your answer.

- You may adopt either a quantitative or a qualitative approach. Be aware that if you blend the two approaches you might increase the amount of time needed to compose an answer.

Sample Problem -
.
School districts want to be sure that inclusion results in success for all students, yet alternative approaches to inclusion such as co-teaching and outside support teachers are offered as solutions.

You must address all items in this outline.

1. Establish at least one plausible research question that addresses the problem.

2. Indicate how you would sample subjects (or documents, events, materials, test items, if relevant). Include the following in your answer: sampling method; procedures for drawing a sample; sample size; possible sources of bias or error; sample limitations.

3. Describe the type(s) of information you would use to answer the research question. How would you evaluate the reliability and validity of that information? (Examples: if using test scores, you will need to describe your statistical evaluation of reliability and validity; if using participant observation, you will need to explain how you determine validity and trustworthiness).

4. How would you collect the data? Describe your procedures.

5. How would you analyze the information and interpret the findings? If you elect to use a statistical method of analysis, what statistics will be interpreted and what information do the statistics yield about the data? If you elect to use thematic or interpretative analyses, how will you organize the information and draw conclusions based on induction?

6. Identify and describe the limitations and possible significance of your study.

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HIGHER EDUCATION

FOUNDATIONS

DIRECTION: Select one question from the questions provided and respond to it. Also, please specify the number of the question that you are answering. You have 90 minutes to write this response.

1. Discuss and give examples of the influence of the German university model on American higher education. Treat such factors as:
 

a. the development of advanced degrees

b. the development of tenure

c. disciplinary departmentalization

d. mission
 


2. Discuss the interplay in higher education of the factors proposed as perennial educational goals by Randall Collins:
 

a. Status pursuits

b. Vocational concerns

c., Social control concerns

Give examples of each type and of mixed types to illustrate your point.
 
 

3. Discuss the origins and nature of symbols of status found in American institutions of higher education. Give and explain examples that include:

a. architecture

b. formal rituals

c. informal, unofficial of "illegal" practices

d. curriculum items

 



4. Explain the major themes in rationalism and empiricism as these theories have developed in Western thought. It is often asserted that these two epistemological theories imply radically divergent educational practices. For example, empiricists often argue that the most appropriate education emphasizes direct experience, "learning by doing", while thinks of a rationalist bent, from Plato to Chomsky, argue that education if fundamentally a matter of "pulling out" from the student what he/she already implicitly knows, bringing to full consciousness what is innate. Discuss what you believe to be the most significant implications of these respective theories for education. Are there good reasons for preferring one approach to the other? (See Trial Answer)
 


5. What should the place of values education be in the curriculum? Is it possible to give appropriate guidance to students concerning values issues without merely indoctrinating them? Should the focus of values education be on rules of correct behavior (as for example Kant thought), or on character development (as for example Aristotle held)? Consider specifically the difficulties that American multiculturalism poses for values education.
(See Trial Answer)

 

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PROFESSIONAL KNOWLEDGE

HIGHER EDUCATION

ADMINISTRATION/LEADERSHIP

DIRECTION: Select one question from the questions provided and respond to it. Also, please specify the number of the question that you are answering. You have 90 minutes to write this response.
 

Bucks County Community College is celebrating its 20th anniversary. For the past 15 years Dr. Mary Scott has headed the institution. Although the college has met the demands of the 1980's, changing finances, demographics and student populations, it has done so in a reactive mode. The 1990's hold a very different scenario for the county and for the college. Changes expected to occur during the next decade are a continual decline in the adolescent population, a change form a rural economy to a service and light industry economy, an increase in the tax base, and an increase in the immigrant population due to affordable housing and job possibilities. Also affecting the institution is the greying faculty. Throughout the past few years, as faculty retire they have been replaced with adjuncts. Dr. Scott is now retiring from the Presidency. Various constituencies within the college and from the community have expressed concern over the presidential search. They see this as an opportunity to set the organizational climate and culture for the next ten years...into the 21st century.
1. a. You have been appointed to head the search committee for the new president. Your charge is to bring together a committee of faculty, students, administrators, staff and community representatives.

1. b. How will you carry out your charge? Discuss how you will prepare the committee to assess the potential candidates, establish criteria for presidential leadership, analyze their credentials and interviews and make a decision. 


 

2.  Discuss the current debates in professional ethical issues in higher education. Deal with the following:

a. how to recognize ethical dilemmas;

b. how current concerns raise ethical issues;

c. what some leadership strategies are for dealing with them on your campus. (See Trial Answer)
 

3. What are some of the impacts of technological change on the organizational structures and practices in higher education? Discuss, among other things:
a. Classroom dynamics;

b. Missions;

c. Organizational challenges for administrators.
 

4. First, define your philosophy of leadership and explain how your acquired knowledge of traditional and contemporary leadership theory and practice has influenced that philosophy. Next, select an issue affecting adult or higher education that you believe needs to be addressed and present a plan of action for bringing about positive change in areas related to the issue you selected. This section of your response should include a complete assessment of the issue and why you consider it important and a well organized explanation on how you as a leader would address the problem in the context of your organizational interests. You are expected to support all aspects of your response with appropriate reference to the related research and literature.

 

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RESEARCH METHODS

HIGHER EDUCATION

Sample item for Research Methods – Comprehensives

Directions:

In this Research Methods section, you will be given a research problem pertaining to your degree area (i.e., School Administration, Higher Education Leadership or Reading, respectively).

- You are to prepare a mini-proposal (500-750 words in length).

- The proposal should establish at least one plausible research question that addresses the problem.

- Then describe a research investigation that would answer the question and be publishable as an article or a dissertation.

- Keep in mind that you only have 90 minutes to complete this assignment. Therefore you want to achieve a balance between main ideas and supporting details.

- You will need to address all the items in the outline that follows, so it will make your task easier if you simply follow the outline.

- An outline format for your response will be acceptable assuming that you have included explanatory information.

- Professors reading your examination need enough detail to comprehend your answer.

- You may adopt either a quantitative or a qualitative approach. Be aware that if you blend the two approaches you might increase the amount of time needed to compose an answer.

Sample Problem -

Colleges want to enroll students that are highly likely to succeed and therefor persist in enrolling until they achieve a degree, yet they want to be sure that their predictions of persistence do not discriminate against culturally diverse populations.

You must address all items in this outline.

1. Establish at least one plausible research question that addresses the problem.

2. Indicate how you would sample subjects (or documents, events, materials, test items, if relevant). Include the following in your answer: sampling method; procedures for drawing a sample; sample size; possible sources of bias or error; sample limitations.

3. Describe the type(s) of information you would use to answer the research question. How would you evaluate the reliability and validity of that information? (Examples: if using test scores, you will need to describe your statistical evaluation of reliability and validity; if using participant observation, you will need to explain how you determine validity and trustworthiness).

4. How would you collect the data? Describe your procedures.

5. How would you analyze the information and interpret the findings? If you elect to use a statistical method of analysis, what statistics will be interpreted and what information do the statistics yield about the data? If you elect to use thematic or interpretative analyses, how will you organize the information and draw conclusions based on induction?

6. Identify and describe the limitations and possible significance of your study.

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FOUNDATIONS

READING/LANGUAGE ARTS

FOUNDATIONS

DIRECTIONS: Select one question from the questions provided and respond to it. Also, please specify the number of the question that you are answering. You have 90 minutes to write this response.


 

1. Every reading/language arts professional should develop a philosophy that encompasses his or her view of literacy learning and education. Discuss you personal educational philosophy as it relates to reading/language arts and impacts upon your present or future professional goals. Use specific examples of philosophers and their beliefs which support your professional philosophy.


 

2. Current practices seem to indicate that instructional materials influence reading instruction rather than research and/or philosophy. Support or refute this statement from a historical perspective.


 

3. A research milestone is a powerful influence (positive or negative) on methodology and curriculum and instruction. It can create movements and spawn other research studies. Select and describe a research milestone in reading education and show how it impacted the field of literacy education.

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PROFESSIONAL KNOWLEDGE

READING/LANGUAGE ARTS

READING METHODOLOGY

DIRECTION: Select one question from the questions provided and respond to it. You have 90 minutes to write the response.


 

1. Reading is a very complex activity. What happens when a proficient reader interacts with the text? What does the reading process entail? Describe the process and include in your discussion the many components of the reading act.


 

2. There are some children who have problems with the reading process. Starting with conception and continuing through adulthood, suggest factors that cause children to become dysfunctional in reading. Include in your discussion research findings which indicate the causes of reading failure.


 

3. In the last forty years, state and federal legislators have passed laws which have impacted literacy education. Choose a piece of legislation (state or federal). Describe its historical background, the research surrounding it, and what you perceive to be its future impact.
 
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RESEARCH METHODS

READING/LANGUAGE ARTS



Sample item for Research Methods Section

Directions:

In this Research Methods Section, you will be given a research problem pertaining to your degree area (i.e., School Administration, Higher Education Leadership or Reading, respectively).

- You are to prepare a mini-proposal (500-750 words in length).

- The proposal should establish at least one plausible research question that addresses the problem.

- Then describe a research investigation that would answer the question and be publishable as an article or a dissertation.

- Keep in mind that you only have 90 minutes to complete this assignment. Therefore you want to achieve a balance between main ideas and supporting details.

- You will need to address all the items in the outline that follows, so it will make your task easier if you simply follow the outline.

- An outline format for your response will be acceptable assuming that you have included explanatory information.

- Professors reading your examination need enough detail to comprehend your answer.

- You may adopt either a quantitative or a qualitative approach. Be aware that if you blend the two approaches you might increase the amount of time needed to compose an answer.

Sample Problem -
.
Reading - Parents of students with reading difficulties are demanding that heavily advertised and expensive reading programs be adopted for their children, yet the schools are concerned about whether the programs are worth the extra expense.

You must address all items in this outline.

1. Establish at least one plausible research question that addresses the problem.

2. Indicate how you would sample subjects (or documents, events, materials, test items, if relevant). Include the following in your answer: sampling method; procedures for drawing a sample; sample size; possible sources of bias or error; sample limitations.

3. Describe the type(s) of information you would use to answer the research question. How would you evaluate the reliability and validity of that information? (Examples: if using test scores, you will need to describe your statistical evaluation of reliability and validity; if using participant observation, you will need to explain how you determine validity and trustworthiness).

4. How would you collect the data? Describe your procedures.

5. How would you analyze the information and interpret the findings? If you elect to use a statistical method of analysis, what statistics will be interpreted and what information do the statistics yield about the data? If you elect to use thematic or interpretative analyses, how will you organize the information and draw conclusions based on induction?

6. Identify and describe the limitations and possible significance of your study.

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FOUNDATIONS
FOUNDATIONS OF HUMAN SEXUALITY


DIRECTIONS: Select one question from the questions provided below and respond to it. Also, please specify the number of the question that you are answering. You have 90 minutes to write this response.


 


1. The theme of a recent professional meeting in sexology is "Responsible Sexology: Voices from the 21st Century: Defining Positive Sex Education". There are four panelists, plus yourself as moderator. Outline the major points each of the panelists will address on this topic. Be sure to include references to their writings and other contributions to the field. Conclude your discussion with your own final remarks which offers your own original perspective on the topic and analyzes the four (4) panelists' perspectives in relationship to your own.

Select the four panelists from the following list OR pick your own panelists (living or deceased). Peggy Brick, Sol Gordon, Doug Kirby, Carol Vance, Michelle Fine, Sharon Thompson, Laura Schlessinger, Phyllis Schafly, Thomas Szaz.



2. Though the field of formal sexuality education is relatively young, many educators, researchers, therapists and non-sexologists have contributed historically in some way to the content, curricula and methodologies we use today.

A. Select (6) individuals (presently living or dead) who, in your opinon, have contributed the most to the field of sexology.
B. State your reasons for choosing each of the six and support your choices with evidence from the literature.
C. Use the contributions from these six (6) to develop the rationale for a course in human sexuality.


 


3. Because of your expertise in Human Sexuality/Sexology, you have been asked to address a group of medical professionals who traditionally have approached sexuality from a disease or medical trauma model. Your role is to convince them to find ways to approach their role in a more holistic, sex positive way. Choose one of the topics below

a. Why We Must Find a Way to Create a More Sex-Positive Society
b. Why We Must Abandon Efforts to create a More Sex-Positive Society
and using the depth and breadth of your understanding of the literature of sexuality/sexology complete the following two tasks:

1. Through comparison and contrast, evaluate the merits of both positions.

2. After your preceding analysis, prepare and deliver (write) your address on the position that you have taken.


 

4. Compare the criteria Alfred Kinsey, William Stayton, Michael Storms, and Fred Klein used to develop their descriptive models of sexual orientation. What conclusions did each draw from his model. Compare and contrast their conclusions. Using any of the models, take a position and develop a theory on the origin of sexual orientation.

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PROFESSIONAL KNOWLEDGE
APPLICATION/PRACTICE OF HUMAN SEXUALITY


DIRECTIONS: Select one question from the questions provided and respond to it. You have 90 minutes to write this response



1. In sex education and sex therapy it is very important to be able to differentiate the following terms and to clearly understand each of them. Define each of the terms and discuss the major issues and/or problems cited in the literature found in each that would be important for teachers and therapists to know and understand. Give examples of case studies that would characterize each of the categories. Sexual identity, sex - coded roles , sexual orientation, sexual lifestyle



2. In attempting to understand the complexity of human sexual expression, various theorists have offered explanations that are reductionistic models. Sexuality has often been equated with or understood from the viewpoint of reproductive behavior. Certain behaviors inconsistent with reproductive activity have been viewed as sin, perversions, paraphilias, or even gender transpositions. Homosexual sexual acts, for example, have undergone various explanations over the centuries- most often with heterosexual coital activity as a point of reference. Each explanation has been supported by certain assumptions, which have been repudiated and supplanted with new assumptions. One such assumption is that in humans the purpose of sexuality is basically reproductive. Using the literature and theoretical support, analyze the current perspective on sexuality using the debate between essentialism and social constructive theory. Take a position in one of these two theoretical positions and defend your position from the literature.

 


3. Intersexuality, genetic mosaics and hormonal sensitivities not only influence reproductivity and anatomical physiology, but also, in some cases, psychosocial development. These are issues that school personnel should be sensitive to, but tend to be uninformed about.
You have been asked to run a workshop for educators and school counselors concerning atypical sex/gender development. Design a lesson plan for a full day workshop including as many sexual developmental conditions as possible. Include ONE handout that provides summary information for your audience.


4. Today abstinence education is more prevalent in schools and requested by more school boards than at any other time in the past forty years. There are many abstinence -only (sometimes labeled fear-based) or abstinence-based curricula which have been developed and used widely in public and private schools. The research which has been completed on these curricula have not yield results which suggest that the programs developed and implemented do in fact contribute to abstinence as a choice (or delayed initiation of intercourse as the research literature describes it) for an adolescent. As a sexuality education scholar, write a testimony (using the research literature, learning theories and the political, social, religious climate) that supports or refutes the importance of abstinence-only curricula for use with adolescents .


5. Within the gay community, there is a growing controversy about the role that "choice" plays in "sexual orientation" with many "lesbians" arguing that choice is common in women, and many "gay" men arguing that "orientation" in an involuntary prerogative. Bisexuals argue that gays and lesbians completely dismiss their "orientation". Is Sexual Orientation a choice? The answer should not be "it depends on to whom you are talking." Include a rationale for the language of orientation and the underlying theory based on scholarship and demonstrates not only the dept and breadth of your understanding of sexology as a discipline.


6. You have been invited by CNN to appear as an academic on a talk show regarding trends in human sexuality education. Specifically, you are to discuss condom availability programs in schools. Prepare a scholarly paper which documents and supports your position on this issue. Be sure to analyze and respond to potential opposition as you support and defend your positions. Include in your discussion an explanation of the role that sexuality education could play in promoting positive outcomes from this controversial issue.

 

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RESEARCH METHODS
RESEARCH IN HUMAN SEXUALITY


DIRECTIONS


In this section you will be given a choice of research problems pertaining to your degree area (i.e. Human Sexuality).
You are to prepare a minimum proposal (500-750 words in length).


-The proposal should establish at least one plausible research question that addresses the problem. -Then describe a research investigation that would answer the question and be publishable as an article or a dissertation.


-Keep in mind that you only have 90 minutes to complete this assignment. Therefore you want to achieve a balance between main ideas and supporting details.

-You will need to address all the items in the outline that follows, so it will make your task easier if you simply follow the outline.

-An outline format for your response will be acceptable assuming that you have included explanatory information.

-Professors reading your examination need enough detail to comprehend your answer.

-You may adopt either a quantitative or a qualitative approach. Be aware that if you blend the two approaches you might increase the amount of time needed to compose an answer.

 


Sample Problem - You must address all items in this outline.

A. Are five year-old American children in 2002 confused and/or unsure about their gender identity? Design a research study to address this question, including at least one testable hypothesis.

B. In 1989 Denmark passed a law legalizing same gender marriages. Research done subsequently show that the divorce rate for legally married same gender couples in Denmark is lower than the divorce rate for heterosexual marriages in Denmark and in the United States. (Divorce rate for legally married male couples is 11.4%, for legally married female couples is 16.2% and heterosexual couples in Denmark and in the US is 46%.) Why is it that the heterosexual divorce rate is higher than same gender couples. Why do male couples have a lower divorce rate in Denmark, as compared with female couples and heterosexual couples?

C. One suggestion for curbing the growing rate of HIV in the U.S. is to encourage institutions and agencies to provide condoms for their workers and clients/students. Design a study that would provide information for the support or denial of this action if it were to be funded by private or governmental monies.

You must address all items in this outline.

1. Establish at least one plausible research question that addresses the problem.

2. Indicate how you would sample subjects (or documents, events, materials, test items, if relevant). Include the following in your answer: sampling method; procedures for drawing a sample; sample size; possible sources of bias or error; sample limitations.

3. Describe the type(s) of information you would use to answer the research question. How would you evaluate the reliability and validity of that information? (Examples: if using test scores, you will need to describe your statistical evaluation of reliability and validity; if using participant observation, you will need to explain how you determine validity and trustworthiness).

4. How would you collect the data? Describe your procedures.

5. How would you analyze the information and interpret the findings? If you elect to use a statistical method of analysis, what statistics will be interpreted and what information do the statistics yield about the data? If you elect to use thematic or interpretative analyses, how will you organize the information and draw conclusions based on induction?

6. Identify and describe the limitations and possible significance of your study.

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